Formulation Profile (Series-A/17) – Panchtikta Ghrita

Prof: D.K.Mishra M.D (Ay)
HOD, Dept of Bhaishajya Kalpana
A.L.N Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa

Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha CIPR, DIM, PGDEE, M.Sc., Ph.D.
Head, Quality Control Laboratories
A.L.N Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa

Nagaraja R. PGDICQC, M.Sc.
A.L.N Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa

Reference: Bhaisajyaratnavali, Kusthadhikara: 114-117 ½

Ingredients:

1. Nimba (St. Bk.) 480 g
2. Tikta-patola (Pl.) 480 g
3. Kantakari (Pl.)  480 g
4. Guduchi (St.) 480 g
5. Vasaka (Rt.) 480 g
6. Water for decoction 12 litre
  After reduction 3 litre
7. Haritaki (P.) 128 g
8. Bibhitaka (P.) 128 g
9. Amalaki (P.) 128 g
10. Ghrita (Goghrita) 768 g

Dose: 5-6 gm

Anupana: Warm water or warm milk

Therapeutic indications: Ulcer healing, skin diseases, pain, Helminthiasis/Worm infestation, Haemorrhoids, Cough etc.

Organoleptic characters:

Colour : Somewhat yellowish with greenish touch
Odour : Specific (pleasant)
Taste : Bitter and specific of ghee

Analytical parameters:

Loss on drying : 0.5%
Refractive index at 40° C : 1.4531
Iodine Value : 33
Acid value : 2.31
Saponification value : 228

For All Pharmacopoeial Analysis, Standardization of Single as well as Compound Drugs, with Spectrophotometer, Flame Photomeneter, Photomicrograph etc. Contact

Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha CIPR, DIM, PGDEE, M.Sc., Ph.D.
Head Quality Control Laboratories,
ALN Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa
email: blogalnrmamc@gmail.com, prashantjha19in@yahoo.co.in,  

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IDENTIFICATION OF RAW DRUGS

Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha 
Head, Quality Control Laboratories,
ALN Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa

Prof. (Dr.) T. N. Pandya
Head, Department of Dravyaguna,
IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar

INTRODUCTION:

A substance used for medicine and still not processed or subjected to analysis is raw drug. This substance may be of inorganic or organic origin. The major portion of drugs used in Ayurveda is covered by those of organic origin and especially of plant origin from them. The drugs of organic origin are categorized in organized and unorganized based on presence or absence of cellular structure respectively. Further those of herbal drugs are classified in cryptogamous and phanerogamous by means of source of origin. Cryptogamous covers algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes and pteridophytes; they inclusively cover around 10% of total consumption of herbal drugs. The remaining 90% is shared by angiosperm and gymnosperm being 89% and 1% respectively.

According to an estimate, out of over 2,50,000 plant species, 35,000 are used medicinally. India alone is using over 6,000 plants for medicinal purpose and out of this around 2,400 plants are used in various indigenous systems of medicines. The major portion is encompassed by Ayurveda using around 1,550 plants. According to various sources roughly 1,000 plants are having trade for various medicinal purposes. The total trade in European countries alone reaches above 6 million dollars. Root and rhizomes share the biggest portion of this trade followed by fruits, whole plants, stems, leaves etc. As the drug has both commercial and medicinal aspects involved with health of general beings, true identification for standard drugs automatically becomes important.

Need of Identification: Identification is process of recognition or genuine entity of individuals; even they may be the plants or herbal drugs or any living organism. Identification turns important when commercial aspects are postulated. Knowingly or unknowingly, adulteration has been part of herbal trading. Some of these admixing are totally different from genuine by means of compositions and medicinal effects too. Malva rotundifolia and Merremia species were found selling by name of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri). The leaves of these adulterants are only similar to officially allowed substitute of Brahmi i.e., Centella asiatica. Cyperus stoloniferus is found being sold in Mumbai market by name of Jatamansi, the genuine one being Nardostachys jatamansi. Similarly various adulterants are in market for different plant drugs. Once identification of each drug is set in form of monograph, adulteration can be easily judged by buyers. Even exhausted drugs of essential oil containing drugs like clove with less volatile oil, can also be checked.

Techniques of Identification: Techniques for identification of raw drugs are well mentioned and found Pharmacopoeia of any nation and WHO (World Health Organization) guidelines under following headlines as:

1.  Organoleptic evaluation
2.  Macroscopic evaluation
3.  Microscopic evaluation
4.  Chemical evaluation          

Organoleptic evaluation: It involves the application of sensory organs. In these tests the shape and size, external colour and markings, fracture, texture or feel, internal colour and marking, odour, and taste are noted like:

Fracture   :    Short, fibrous, granular, splintery, laminated, mealy etc.
Odour      :    Aromatic, camphoraceous etc.
Taste        :    Better, sweet, pungent, numbing etc.

Macroscopic evaluation: It involves the comparison of exo-morphological characters that are visible with the naked eye or under low magnification microscope with descriptions of the plant or botanical drug in floras or standard monographs of drugs in pharmacopoeia as presence of marks, lenticels, ridges, gyri etc.

Microscopic evaluation: It is carried out in following steps:

1. Detailed tissue structure by means of various ways of    sectionings like TS, LS etc.
2. Localization of metabolites,
3. Powder characters.

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Therapeutic perspectives of Yoga Philosophy and techniques

Dr Krishna Raghava Hebbar Dr. Krishna R. Hebbar. N
MD (Ayu), MSc (Yoga), B. Nat (Sch), DNHE
Professor,
Dept. of Swasthavritta,
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa

       Yoga is the one of the ancient scientific spirituals disciplines of India. Yoga is neither a sect nor an ideology, but practical training of mind and body. Yoga is a panacea not only for personal problems of body and mind but burning social problems like violence, hatredness, castism, poverty and ignorance etc.

       Basically yoga is a spiritual science. Main aim of yoga is union of self (Aatma) with universal spirit (Paramatma) (Ref.B.G). Health benefits of yoga is a byproduct of yoga practice which is very essential to do efforts (Sadhana) to attain highest spiritual state i.e. liberation (Moksha). This positive side effect of yoga is like a tip of an ice berg compared to the overall benefits of yoga. Having the concept of “we are belongs to the same family” in the present era therapeutically benefit of yoga is a boon to the whole mankind.

       Therapeutically views are scattered in spiritual science of yoga in philosophical and practical level. According to WHO definitions of 1948 “Health is state of complete physical mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease or informative”. After 1948 spiritual, vocational, emotional, nutritional dimensions also added. Yoga therapy is simple non invasive technique which does not require high calorie diet sophisticated instrument much time and age restriction. Practice of yoga philosophy and technique in day today life bestows integration physical mental and social and spiritual health to aspirants. This also improves quality of life with extended life span.

 Yoga Therapy -
I) Philosophical level
II) Practical level (techniques).

Philosophical Level:
1) Yogic principles are being used to treat
a) Psychosomatic diseases.
b) Psychiatric diseases.
2) Practicing yogic principles improve inter personal relations.
3) Austerity, cleanliness, study of religious books, surrendering to the god, meditation.
Practical level:
1)   Shatkriaya.
2)   Asana.
3)   Pranayama.
4)   Bandha.
5)   Mudra.

Therapeutical application of yoga philosophy:
1)   Sage Gheranda says “Human body is prone to many diseases and aging process which is just like unbaked earthen pot. If one bake it by the yoga agni (practice of yoga) it attains stability and fit to face the challenges of life.

2) Detachments of miseries from the sufferings. There are three type of diseases (miseries)
a) Aadhyatmika.
b) Aadibhoutika.
c) Aadidaivika.

3) There is no greater power than yoga and there is no enemy stronger than egoism (G.S – ¼).

4)  Yogic techniques to be practiced to get following benefit

Benefits Practice.
Body purification. Shatkriya.
Strength. Aasana.
Steadiness. Mudra.
Lightness. Pranayama.
Realization of self. Meditation.

 5)    Apart from yogic techniques importance of food is also highlighted in Gheranda Samhita “without yogic diet one should not do yoga practice if one does so he will become a victim of many diseases”.

6) Suppression of fluctuation of mind is yoga (P.Y.S ½). As fluctuated mind is causative factor for many physical mental and social disorders, it can be control by yoga which results in integrated health.

7) Grief dejection restlessness of body, abnormal pattern of respiration are due to distractions of life. Remedy for this is meditation of single principle or doing constructive work (P.Y.S.1/32).

8) For peace of mind (chitta prasadana) one should exhibit friendly behavior with happy people compassion towards the grief stricken, respected towards the people who involved in good work and negligence towards the wicked peoples.

9) To refrain from problems of life one should kriya yoga i.e. austerity, self study and surrendering to god.

10) Patanjali advices optimistic suggestions that forth coming miseries can be stopped.

11) Social health –

a)    If one is established with nonviolence in his presence non violence aura is developed. The people or animal are comes under this aura live their rival vary nature (P.Y.S 2/35).

b)    The person who speaks truth always can get what he says or plans. There is no need of telling lie to get any benefits (P.Y.S 2/36).

c)    One who practices non stealing get all types of wealth without much efforts (P.Y.S 2/37).

12) Physical and mental health – Maintaining cleanliness physically mentally leads to reduction of infatuation towards one’s own body and towards the other, purity of mind, peace and good will power and gives capacity to get enlightenment.

13) Mental health – Developing attitude of contentment with what he has, one will always be satisfied and happy (P.Y.S 2/43).

14)Physical and mental health – Aasana practice leads to overcome physical dualities like heat and cold and mental dualities like respect and humility, victory and defeat, gain and loss.

 Therapeutic benefits of yoga techniques

I. SHATKRIYA

Techniques Benefits
1. Dhouti Benefits
(A) Antar dhauti
1. Vatasara Increases appetite, all diseases related to G.I.T. are cured [G.S. 1/16]
2. Varisara Purifies body, results in radiment body [G.S. 1/18]
3. Angisara Increases appetite [G.S. 1/19]
4. Bahiskrita Cleans the rectum, checks constipation [G.S 1/22]
(B) Danta dhauti
5. Danta moola Cleans the gum & teeth [G.S 1/26]
6. Jihwa moola Reduces phlegmatic diseases, postpones ageing & death. Cleanses the tongue [G.S. 1/29]
7. Karna randhra Increases auditory sensation [G.S 1/32]
8. Kapala randhra Kapha, purifies the channel. Bestows good vision [G.I / 33.24]
(C) Hrid Dhauti
9. Danda Good for heart diseases [G.S 1/37]
10. Vaman Kapha and pitta dizarders [G.S 1/38]
11. Vastra Preserves health nourishes [G.S 1/40] the body, relieve obstruction in the intestine, cures splenic enlargement, fever kapha & pitta disorders (G.S 1/41)
(D) Moola Sodhana Cures constipation (Ref. G.S 1/42)
2. BASTI
1. Jala Basti Increase digestion, cures Rheumatoid Arthritis & diseases of abdomen (G.S 1/48)
Cures diseases which arises due to imbalance of vata, pitta, kapha, expels impurities of G.I. tract, intestinal obstruction splenic enlargement
2. Sthala Basti Cures indigestion constipation, piles, prolapse of rectum, bladder and uterus [G.S. 1/48]
3. NETI
1. Jalaneti Diseases of head & neck (H.V.P 2/30) Gives good vision
2. Sutra neti Removes disorders of kapha and gives sharp vision. Gives Khechari Siddhi [G.S 1/50]
NAULI (Loulik) Destroys all diseases, increases heat of body during cold season [G.S. 1/51]Increases digestion by kindling digestive fire, Good for all disorders of dosha and brings happiness [A.X. P 2/34]
TRATAKA Gives diseases of eye, gives acute vision and bestows shambhavi mudra [G.S. 1/53]
KAPALA BHATI
1. Vatakrama Cures disorders of kapha especially head and neck. [G.S. 1/56]
2. Vyutkrama Cures disorder of kapha [G.S. 1/57]
3. Sitkrama Cures disorders of kapha, fever. Gives beauty to face and body. [G.S. 1/58-59]Postpones old age, Cleanliness of body
ASANA
84,00,00084 important General : Helps to overcome physical and mental dualities [A.S]Gives stability, Preserves health, lightness of body [AY.P 1/17]
1. Matsyendrasana Increases digestion, cures dreadful diseases, awakens the serpent power (Kandalini), postpones aging process (H.Y.P. 1/27) [G.S. 2/30]
2. Mayurasana Cures diseases of intestines Ascities and other stomach disorders. It digests overeated & contaminated food by enhancing digestive fire. It gives the capacity to digest even deadly poison kalakuta visha (H.Y.P 1/31)
PRANA YAMA
8 Types General : Improves higher functions of brain like memory, intellect, grasping, analyzing skills etc. [PY.S 1]Gives lightness of body, peace.
1. Ujjayee Cures disorders of kapha, flatulence, indigestion. Rheumatoid arthritis, emaciation induced due to T.B., fever. Postpones old age and death. [G.S. 5/67]
2. Sheetali Cures pittaja disorders, obstruction of channels, splenic enlargement fever, excessive thirst & hunger. [HYP 2/58]
BANDHA
Uddiyana By regular practice even an old person can become young boy in 6 months, post pones the death [H.Y.P 3/58, 59]
MUDRA
Vipareetakarani Improves digestion. 6 months of regular practice prevent grey hairs and wrinkles. Who practices for 3 hours per day conquers death [H.Y.P. 3/80-82]
MEDITATION Arrests fluctuations of mind control over emotions. [PYS 1]
DIET Yogic diet helps to cure the diseases and preserves health in case of healthy individual. Supportive to get benefits of yoga because of satwik nature [g.s. 1/16]

        Yoga shows resemblance with many alternative systems of medicines. It is a whole science as it has incorporated the principles of various alternative systems of medicines. A few of them are cited below:-

Alternative System of Medicine YOGA
Physiotherapy Asana
Psychotherapy Yoga sutras (principles)
Helio therapy Soorya Namaskar
Chromotherapy Using white & saffron coloured clothes by aspirants
Hydrotherapy Basti, varisara dhouti
Massage therapy Massaging body after perspiration of pranayama
Diet therapy Yogic diet
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RASAYANA THERAPY AND ITS ROLE IN PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF AGEING

Dr. B.I. Mathapati Dr. B.I. Mathapati,
Professor,
Dept. of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana,
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa
Introduction:
Ayurveda has put special emphasis on the care of ageing and age related problems by innovating a special branch of medical knowledge called rasayana where the phenomenon of ageing has been viewed in relevance of nutrition and immune functions. Some of the rasayana are also tissue specific and disease specific for example medhya rasayana and hrudhya rasayana.Ayurveda does not merely believe in adding the number of years to life but it advocates adding life to the each year. This may be one of the reasons that the first aim of Ayurveda is to preserve and promote the health of healthy persons. To fulfill this aim, Ayurveda maintains two separate branches (1) Rasayana (2) Vajikarana.

Discussion:
Defnition: This is special branch of medicine which prevents ageing, gives longevity, strength and also destroys various diseases.

Life span: Every tissue, organ and channel of the body is gifted with the reserve force. This is put into action when that tissue or organ is overloaded with work. Total combined effect of the reserve force of all the tissues, organs and channels is called as the life span of that individual.

Definition of ageing: It is a terminology representing multifactorial, inevitable biological phenomenon characterized with many changes in the body.Ageing is an inevitable phenomenon of life associated with a range of structural and functional changes in the body. Because of ageing the human system becomes prone to a variety of age related disease which needs special care. As the number of the elderly people in the population is increasing significantly because of increased life expectancy, the problems of the aged are becoming more and more overt in present times warranting development of suitable strategies to combat the situation.

Ageing according to Ayurveda: According to Ayurveda parinama can be taken as the factor for ageing. Jara is a natural process which may be timely or untimely according to acharya Sushruta. Now a day’s early onset of ageing is common with the symptoms like wrinkling, graying etc improper food, unhealthy lifestyle and mental tensions are important in the onset of early ageing along with the environment pollution. Which is an unavoidable factor in this scientific era. These enhance the release of free radicals and fasten the process of ageing.

Causes for apachaya in old age:

Vata vruddhi

 Vishamagni & jataragni mandya

 Dhatu kshaya

 Oja kshaya

 Decrease in immunity power

 Jara or ageing

Characters of Dhatukshaya

Sl no Dhatu’s Dhatu kashaya laxanas in old age
1. Rasa Rough skin, wrinkling hair and graying hair
2. Rakta Rough skin, appearance of patches on the skin, diminishing of beauty, loss of elasticity
3. Mamsa Hallow cheeks, mild joint pain, dryness, general weakness
4. Medha Numbness in different parts of the body, emaciation, feeling of emptiness in joints, decreased luster
5. Asthi Loss of movements, brittle and hard nails, cracking of nails, decreased luster of teeth, gum, loose teeth, graying and falling of hairs, rheumatic complaints
6. Majja Brittle bones, dementia, emptiness of bones, giddiness
7. Shukra Lack of libido, emaciated buttock, shrunken eyes

Factors for ageing: Environment factor and genetic factor are two main factors responsible for ageing. Free radical theory is one of the acceptable theory regarding causes for ageing. Rasayana or rejuvenation is the ideal therapy which can counteract the above facts. It may be used in the form of food, medicine or behavior. Here rasa means essence of food and ayana means circulation. It enhances the nourishment of all tissues and cells.

Need of Rasayana: Today’s life style is very hectic and practically every person suffers from over exertion i.e. physical and mental. There is feeling of insecurity and stress and strain is increasing. The diet is also changing; people are eating more and more fast foods, food with preservatives and junk food. Similarly organic fertilizers are being replaced with chemical ones and use of pesticides is also increasing. All these leads to poor nutrition of the body. There is increasing tendency of lethargy and lack of exercise. Habit forming substances are increasing like smoking, tobacco chewing etc. All the above causes result in early ageing, lack of strength and immunity. This leads to depression and recurrent illness. Acharya Sharangadhara has described that with each decade of life the individual looses certain qualities hence he should select proper rasayana for every decade.

Rasayana phala:

The benefits of rasayana are longevity, good memory and intelligence, freedom from diseases, youthful age, and excellence of luster, complexion and voice, optimum strength, good functioning of sense organs. Rasayana creates new tissues in the body having optimum quality and it prevents ageing.

Rasayana karma:

  1. It provides proper nutrition to each tissue.
  2. It increases jataragni and as well as dhatvagni and hence the function of pancha bhoutik agni also gets improved.
  3. Hence all the tissues in the body are formed having their best qualities.
  4. It removes the kleda, ama and other waste products which are actually responsible for ageing process. These waste products are also called as free radicals and rasayana removes these free radicals from the body. This action of rasayana is known as anti oxidant and it has now been found in most of the herbs having rasayana action.
  5. It gives strength to the srotasas or channels in the body.
  6. It increases ojas and strength of the body.
  7. It normalizes the doshas in the body.
  8. It is also useful in maintaining the satva quality of the mind. Hence the mind and the sense organs and the motor organs become optimum in their qualities.

Why Rasayana in Geriatrics: Every mans scare, a multifactorial and inevitable biological phenomenon is ageing. The proportion of elderly people is constantly increasing along with age related diseases. Even though it is impossible to adopt all the things certain changes in life style like practice of rejuvenating diet, medicine, yoga will certainly help to prevent many diseases as well as to overcome many problems related to ageing.

Rasayana medicines: Amalaki, Madooka parni, Shatavari, Shilajatu, Lashuna, Vacha, Bhallataka, Pippali, Haritaki, Guduchi, Bhibitaki and Ashvagandha.

Hareetakyadi Rasayana : This is excellent tonic for old age and increases functions of all sense organs and all systems.

Lohadi Rasayana :  After one year of using the rasayana, which is excellent for preventing all geriatric diseases.

Mode of action of Rasayana drugs: Some drugs like Ashvagandha and Shilajatu nullify the effects of stress and drugs like Gambhari improve nitrogen balance and promote tissue building. Guggulu clears the channels and enhances the nutrition to all tissues and cells. Amalaki and Bala contain antioxidants which help in the scavenging of free radicals released. Achara Rasayana acts as psycho immuno modulator, reduces stress and thus prevents the release of free radicals.

Achara Rasayana: Speaking truth, not expressing anger, forbidding intake of alcohol, sexual intercourse, peaceful, speaking sweetly, indulging in medication, takes ghee and milk daily, who is devoid of ego, acts according to rules will be imparted with qualities of rasayana.

To give up falsity and adopt sadvrutta is the way for healthy and happy life devoid of sufferies. Further more it is good of the individual, his surroundings and the society of which he is a part a wholesome living promotes a wholesome environment. Under the light of holistic definition of Ayurveda the achara rasayana is a comprehensive package for health promotion.

Achara rasayana advantages or benefits: Rasayana chikitsa is incomplete without adopting achara rasayana; of course one who has admitted achara rasayana is most suitable person to undergo rasayana chikitsa observing achara rasayana itself bring many bimolecular level rasayana effects. The complete positive and promotive health care is achieved through achara rasayana.

The whole concept of rasayana therapy is oriented to enhance quality of health in an individual which one of the two prime mottos of Ayurveda treatments. This rasayana therapy can be planned into two ways according to Charaka

  1. Vatatapika rasayana – which is suitable for day to day life.
  2. Kutipraveshika rasayana – it is serious programme in a confined environment to certain period of time.

These rasayana therapies can be planned as per the need and requirement of the individual seeking for the treatment.

Now a day’s prevention of the diseases is achieved by immunization specifically against the each disease but the number of the diseases is so much that practically it is not possible to immunize a person against all the diseases. On the other hand the concept of rasayana seems to increase the general immunity so that one can live a long span of youthful life free from the diseases. It may provide an umbrella against the diseases and ageing by promoting the physical and mental health. All these points generate an idea about the Ayurveda believes in promoting the general immunity of a person so that he can fight out any type of disease.

Rasayana mainly deals with promotion of physical and mental health. The properly and timely uses of rasayana drugs promote youthfulness, provides longevity, memory, intelligence, complexion, body glow and best physical strength as well as of senses. The rasayana have multidimensional mode of action through nutrition dynamics.

Remarkably modern pharmacology and clinical medicine are actively conducting series of studies on anti ageing drugs, disorder of senile stage of human body and aging process, the vast knowledge of Indian medicine, the science of life itself, is competent source of potentials in regard to the concepts, principles, drugs and medicine including the management of ageing disorders, preservation of health, comprehensive fitness of body and mind and rejuvenation of life with longevity. Thus the anti ageing herbal drugs have wide prospects in the world prospective.

Other measures used for increasing the immunity were Vajikarana, seasonal administration of shodhana and practicing the rules of dinacharya, sadvrutta and achara rasayana.

Conclusion:

Our aim is to make elderly healthier and happier by assisting in over coming their psychological, physical, physiological problems by a healthy life style Rasayana. As many of our senior citizens suffer from multiple disorders which may need lot of medications, many a times they are not able to withstand the impact of strong medication.

1. Many of the rasayana drugs possessing immunomodulatory and anti oxidant effects in prevention of ailments, preservation of health and curative measures against the diseases including various psychosomatic, chronic, degenerative and auto immune disorders. Scientific investigations results have been diverted towards herbal drugs which are found to be potent source of anti oxidant agents remarkably validating great significance of rasayana therapy as a thrust area of anti ageing herbal agents crediting Ayurveda for the medicine of the millennium.

2. Many herbal drugs of potential as anti ageing herbal agents have been referred in Indian medicine and large number of compound preparations is recommended under rasayana therapy. These carry multiferous scientific importance.

3. Consider elder persons as senior citizens because they are like jewels.

4. Rasayana therapy is ideal for to postpone ageing.

5. The nano technology, biotechnology, molecular biology, nuclear, medicine, electronic instrumentation and technology, cell biology, tissue culture studies etc are new applied science fields helpful in updating the ancient proven results of rasayana.

6. The whole concept of rasayana therapy is oriented to enhance quality of health in an individual which one of the two prime mottos of Ayurveda treatments.

References:

  1. Charaka Chikitsa sthana 1/1/5,6
  2. Charaka Chikitsa sthana 1/4/35
  3. Charaka Chikitsa sthana 1/4/27,28
  4. Charaka Chikitsa sthana 1/3/30,31
  5. Ashtanga Hrudaya Uttaratantra 39/1,2 & 144
  6. Ashtanga Hrudaya Uttaratantra 39/179,180
  7. Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa sthana 30/3 & 30,40
  8. Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa sthana 28/27
  9. Sharangadhara Samhita
  10. Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana 19/4
  11. Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana 29/27
  12. Yogaratnakara
  13. Bhaishajya Ratnavali
  14. Yogachintamani
  15. Siddhayogasangraha
  16. A Hand book of Ayurveda by Bhagawan Das edition 1994
  17. Ayurveda and Yoga therapy by Subhash Ranade Anamol Prakashan Pune
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AYURVEDA IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF HIV

Dr. Niranjan Dr. Niranjan Y,
Reader,
Dept. of PG studies in Kayachikitsa,
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa
A medical system becomes complete only when it has weapons powerful enough to face any potential threat posed by the nature. A science should have an answer to any presenting problem as well as a potent thought about what to expect and how to face unexpected. Ayurveda – a time tested legacy explored in the time immemorial by the sages who possessed a divine spirit of extra-ordinary thinking and wisdom, may have suitable answer to every health related need.It is assumed that India is going to be the capital of the world in economic prosperity, population explosion and in the number of people infected with HIV. Now the human being is the host, vector and carrier himself to the virus. The Human Immuno virus is thought to have entered human by the sexual contacts with the primates. One can easily notice that the disease originated by unethical sin – Ayonigamana which is supposed to be avoided as per Charaka and Vagbhata.The virus which has affinity towards T Lymphocytes gets attached to it. The viral chromosomes super impose the cell and eventually leading to the destruction of a vital immune system component. The virions spread rapidly in the host eventually destructing the total immune system. There Prajnaparadha leads to Ojakshaya and sahasa again causing Urahkshata leading to shosha or Rajayakshma- co-related to the manifestation of immunocompromised conditions. The Thymus mediated cell destruction and its anatomical position between the Stana bears a striking resemblance to the concept of Doshaja Marmabhighata. Here one can also consider the involvement of blood as the infection carrier and Hridaya and rasadhatu.Ayurveda- being the oldest recorded medical wisdom should have come across the manifestation in HIV infection or ARC (Aids Related Complex).Since the ancient scholars preferred the Alaukika Pratyaksha they may not have listed the pathogenic and path gnomonic microbes like HIV. But they diagnosed the condition based on their understanding, wisdom and other methods of examination. So, let’s have some hypothesis of diagnosing HIV (AIDS) in Ayurvedic parameters;

  • The concept of Abhighata (trauma) leading to vata, rakta vitiation ending up in Jwara- immunocompromise increasing possibility of atypical infections and opportunistic infections.
  • Sahasa leading to Urahkshata-affliction of Thymus mediated immunological apparatus.
  • Prajnaparadha leading to sarvadosha prakopa.
  • Bhayaja atisara- or Agantu jwaradi conditions due to the mental guilt of committing a un ethical action- may be an illegitimate sexual act leading to AIDS Related complex.
  • Transmission of virus in bodily secretions due to the severity of Samprapti- doshadhatu samsarga.
  • Not following of sadwritta and other recommended charyas with special reference to polygamy, sexual perversions and fantasies.
  • Doshaja Marmabhighata is well established as it affects all marmas by virtue to its lymphatic spread.
  • Shosha- a prone condition to multiple infections.

By this it can be well thought that Ayurveda knew and knows a condition called as HIV Infection or AIDS even though it fails to visually demonstrate the viral structure.

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